Nutritional Deficiencies and Essential Considerations for Every Vegan
(An Evidence-Based Nutritional Perspective)
Rick Fischer, CHHC, hTMAP
Concern for the ethical treatment of animals, protecting the environment, living virtuously, feeling spiritually 'lighter', and fueling oneself nutritiously are fundamental reasons why people may choose the vegan diet. Most vegans are, admirably, very health conscious and committed to doing both their body and the planet good. This is why it's so controversial to many to suggest that veganism may not be as healthy afterall. Of course the vegan has heard this argument ad nauseam for years, usually from omnivores who ‘just don’t get it’. To date this argument has been largely based on what most vegans already know - a few nutritional deficiencies which, with intelligent dietary planning, can be overcome. This article however provides a far greater in-depth look at the health effects of the vegan diet, offering a perspective very few in the medical and nutritional fields fully understand or discuss, and understood even less by most of those who, with the best of intentions, decide to go vegan. The information here is based on the findings of decades of biochemical and nutritional research. It explains why some vegans can do well on the diet, but why for others in the long run it can lead to detrimental health effects as has been seen over and over again in clinical practice. To be very clear from the outset, this article is written from a place of service and caring for the vegan, fully respecting their commitment to health and everyone’s right to make their own food choices. It is meant to empower the information-curious vegan (as well as those looking to make the dietary leap) with vital concepts that likely have never been presented to them; and information that, for those on the diet who are encountering health challenges, will also provide answers to health-related questions they may be pondering. It is written from having seen far too many clinical cases of vegans suffering in poor health, and who's health subsequently improved with either the adoption of some limited meat or, at the very least, targeted and advanced nutritional support as discussed in this article which can more optimally support those who choose to remain vegan. Ultimately, this article is to support and encourage everyone to make more fully informed decisions when it comes to designing their diet.
Most vegans and non-vegans alike can generally agree that the vegan diet has a few inherent nutritional deficiencies. These conversations commonly revolve around the lack of protein and B12. The defending rebuttal is that vegan foods also supply protein (true), and B12 can be obtained through supplements, tempeh, nori, and fortified foods including brewer’s yeast. As long as one diligently prepares meals with this in mind, key deficiencies can be avoided. However, this is a world away from addressing the complexity of the deficiencies. To begin with, vegan sources of B12 such as seaweed, spirulina and brewer’s yeast contain cobamides which effectively block the intake of true B12. At least there are proactive and well-known actions one can take here, and most vegans know the importance of supplementing with B12 to limit the extent of true B12 deficiency. (Even so, despite B12 being known amongst vegans as one of the more important nutrients to supplement, the majority of vegans are still deficient. Even those who have levels around 250pg/mL and who would be considered 'normal' by U.S. standards should know that such guidelines are much outdated, with Japan and Europe marking anything below 500-550pg/mL as low and potentially damaging to long term cognitive functioning). Many are also not told when getting their B12 tested, that the body is able to store B12 for up to 3 to 5 years. This means that, even after being a vegan for several years, B12 serum tests can still appear normal, and damage may be in the works long before the deficiency is ever identified. Still, with smart supplementation, planning, and recommended annual testing together with this knowledge, B12 levels can certainly be managed. Much more insidious however are the numerous imbalances that are far less commonly known, as we are about to examine here.
We’ll start the conversation with zinc. The antagonism between zinc and copper is fairly well recognized among those who’ve studied nutrition, yet there are still many who have not grasped the full importance of this relationship. There is a fundamental premise every reader must first understand before any further meaningful discussion can be had - the interrelationship of minerals. All minerals (and vitamins too for that matter) are dynamically interconnected. As one goes up, others go down, and vice versa. The vegan diet is a high copper low zinc diet. The best (highest absorption) zinc sources are found in meat, and adequate zinc is essential to maintaining copper regulation in the body. Without adequate zinc, copper accumulates, building up in the tissues of the body. Ingesting more copper rich vegan foods then adds to this accumulation of copper. Even long before tissue mineral testing was sufficiently developed to provide the hard evidence of mineral imbalances that we have available to us today, the brilliant doctor Carl Pfeiffer, both an MD and PhD, discusses in his book Mental and Elemental Nutrients: A Physicians Guide to Nutrition and Health Care:
“Zinc insufficiency is one of the greatest and least-known dangers of vegetarianism.
The individual who does not eat meat must be careful to fulfill the need for zinc adequately, probably through a tablet supplement.”
When a vegan’s tissue levels of copper are examined, we invariably will see, through correct interpretation, the aforementioned excess level of stored, bio-unavailable copper, either overtly or latent. Blood tests, as widely relied on as they are, usually miss seeing this excess because the transport system of the body (blood) has very little correlation to the amount of minerals and toxins stored in the body’s tissues. Blood quickly disposes of excess, even though that excess hasn’t all left the body. This hidden accumulation of bio-unavailable copper then goes on to contribute to a number of health issues, including increasing internal stress on the body, weakening the adrenals, slowing the thyroid and metabolism, congesting the liver, and contributing to brain fog, depression, anxiety, candida and other digestive issues, and a host of other health concerns as well. The predisposition to excess copper is one of the most important and far-reaching, yet overlooked, concerns that all vegans should, at the very least, have on their radar.
“The great majority of vegetarians suffer from long-term copper toxicity.
This is true even if all tests indicate a low copper level.
The vegetarian’s metabolic rate is too low to cause a proper elimination of copper.” ~Dr. Paul Eck
One irony is that, in the short term, people usually feel better converting to a plant only diet. This is in part due to copper’s stimulating effect on the adrenals (which increases energy) and the detoxing effect that plant foods have on the body. Indeed, the vegetable/vegan based diet is excellent for, and offers many benefits for, detoxing the body in the short term. However, the benefit tends to reverse, for many, in the long run. Excessively stimulated adrenals eventually burn out, and without adequate adrenal (and in turn liver) function, various toxins, metals, and minerals (including copper) accumulate further. It is this issue of copper toxicity that almost no long-term vegan is immune to. Many vegans complain of adrenal fatigue and digestive issues, and copper toxicity due to lack of sufficient dietary meat-based zinc is at the heart of this.
Phytates then add to the problem. Phytates are found in grains, legumes, nuts and seeds (vegan staples), and they interfere with mineral absorption, specifically zinc, iron, manganese and calcium.
The phytates that block iron absorption are also responsible for blocking zinc absorption.
The phytates contained in just 2 ounces of grain flour are sufficient to nearly completely block intestinal zinc absorption. 
(Now, sprouting neutralizes the phytates so an emphasis on sprouted grains, beans and seeds is good, otherwise the phytates will compound the nutritional imbalance). Though whole grains do provide zinc, necessary to balance copper, the benefits are in part nulled by these phytates. In fact, phytic acid causes zinc and magnesium to be eliminated. Though in the big picture this is bad, on the surface it provides the vegan with a temporary boost of energy as both zinc and magnesium (in excess) slow metabolism. However, with the loss of zinc, potassium is lost as well, and together with magnesium loss, contributes in the longer term to subsequent reduced energy and increased hypoglycemia. This reduced utilization/absorption (and increased elimination) of zinc further allows copper to accumulate. Zinc, the very thing that vegans need to balance their copper, is not only lower in their diet without meat to begin with, but the zinc they do get is poorly absorbed. With inadequate zinc, and the resulting impairment of potassium retention, digestive concerns are compounded.
Dr. Paul Eck, a physician and biochemist who dedicated his life to analyzing mineral levels in the body and balancing body chemistry in the 1970s, 80s and 90s, explains in the book Energy: How it affects your emotions, your level of achievement, and your entire well-being:
“Tests reveal that all vegetarians have low potassium levels. A potassium of 10mg% is considered normal.
The majority of vegetarians have potassium levels of 2 and 3 - that is 1/3rd to 1/5th of normal.
This is despite the fact that vegetables are the richest source of potassium...without the glucocorticoid hormones of the
adrenal glands, it is impossible to retain normal potassium levels. Zinc is required to stimulate the production of these hormones. Unfortunately, vegetarians are on a low zinc, high copper diet. They lack the zinc they need to retain potassium in their tissues”.
Without adequate potassium, not only does adrenal function weaken and the thyroid slow, but hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach declines. The lower the HCL, the greater the indigestibility (and consequently distaste) for animal protein, further solidifying the vegan’s belief that they simply ‘feel better’ eating plant foods. The reduced secretion of HCL and pancreatic enzymes leads to putrefaction of proteins, and meat, even the thought of it, literally becomes ‘disgusting’ because their body won’t tolerate it. Low zinc also hinders the manufacture of digestive enzymes. At the same time, a tendency for apathy and depression can increase as a result of the low potassium and low zinc. It no longer matters how much potassium the individual consumes through vegetables and fruit, that potassium is not being retained. In turn, this leads the person to crave more stimulating foods (sugar and/or copper rich foods (chocolate being a prime example)); to crave high potassium foods (vegetables) to supply the constant requirement for potassium which is not being retained; and to crave stimulating activities (i.e.: running), all of which whip up the adrenal glands temporarily making the person feel more alive. Under the surface though they are exhausting themselves, and copper continues to silently rise while zinc and potassium drop.
(While every vegan should be aware that they need to be adding zinc, it won’t always save the day. Even when taking zinc supplements, if the individual is dealing either with high stress or adrenal weakness, the zinc level can actually drop further, even when supplementing).
In addition to low HCL, other digestive concerns arise, including candida / yeast, poor nutrient absorption, gluten sensitivity, and even leaky gut. Copper, as a natural anti-fungal, assists in the control of candida. Without adequate zinc and a key copper-binding protein called ceruloplasmin, copper accumulates in a bio-unavailable form unable to perform its duties, including that of helping to control candida. This is one example of how one can be copper toxic yet deficient at the same time. The low HCL meanwhile reduces the body’s ability to absorb other key nutrients including calcium and iron, while simultaneously reduced digestive enzyme production allows for an environment more suitable for pathogenic bacteria to flourish.
One of the most important factors that makes copper bioavailable is the aforementioned protein ceruloplasmin (Cp). Cp attaches to copper to make it bioavailable. Vitamin A in retinol form is essential for the production of Cp. Retinol however is animal source Vitamin A; it is not found in plants. Plants do not provide true vitamin A (retinol) - they only provide the vitamin A precursors (i.e.: beta-carotene). The vegan therefore has an inherent retinol deficiency which impairs Cp production which then directly allows bio-unavailable copper to increase even more. Unfortunately FDA labeling regulations allow beta carotene to be labeled as Vitamin A, even though it is not, and many are thus led to believe they are consuming adequate amounts of true Vitamin A when in fact they may be horribly deficient.
Of course, beta-carotene can be converted to retinol, but it will still be at a level deficient compared to that provided by meat. Beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A in the intestine and liver by an enzyme called BCMO1. Vegans who have normal BCMO1 function will do better at converting beta-carotene to retinol and may fair better on the vegan diet. However, approximately half the population have BCMO1 polymorphisms that impair (by up 90%!) their beta-carotene conversion! While the meat-eater with one of these polymorphisms will be largely unaffected as they don't need to rely on conversion, the vegan with one of these polymorphisms will be at even far greater risk of low retinol which then in turn impairs Cp production and allows bio-unavailable copper to rise. Even without the polymorphism issue, the digestive system needs to be highly efficient (which is not the case for most people, and even more so for the vegan with low potassium, zinc, and HCL) in order for proper conversion to take place. The vegan will be at extremely high risk of vitamin A deficiency, regardless of how much beta-carotene they consume. Additionally, low thyroid activity and zinc deficiency (both of which as has been mentioned are common in vegans), and a low fat diet (which limits the amount of bile reaching the intestinal tract and which we'll discuss next) further impair the conversion of plant foods into retinol. (Even for vegetarians who eat dairy and eggs, if they too are poor converters, they will also be prone to low retinol and in turn low Cp).
Another key deficiency in the vegan is sulfur, and the sulfur-containing amino acid taurine. Taurine is an amino acid found in good supply in meat, and to a small extent in seaweed, but it is not found in vegetables grown on land. It is essential for the production of bile. We’ve just looked at how the vegan is prone to excess bio-unavailable copper build-up in the body. Bile is the primary method by which this excess copper is removed from the body. Sulfur in general is essential for liver detoxification and the removal of heavy metals from the body. Though sulfur itself can certainly be found in some vegetables, it’s in its most usable form in meat. The vegan therefore is also predisposed to not only a sulphur deficiency, but also a taurine deficiency, impairing their ability to detox copper and other toxins. All the while their liver is becoming overburdened and their adrenals weakened. No matter how healthy and pure one tries to live, it is wishful thinking that in this day and age we are not constantly being exposed to toxins - through air, food, and water. Though you’d be hard-pressed to find a traditional culture that thrived on a purely vegan diet, even if you could, one needs to consider the difference in their lifestyles, environments and stress compared to ours. Not only were soils (and in turn plant foods) far more nutritionally complete in the past, we are also exposed today to hundreds of times more toxins than we were even a hundred years ago. What a person from an ancient culture could easily have detoxed through their body in the past is a very different story from what we in modern society need to be able to detox, amplifying the importance of having sufficient sulfur, taurine, bile production and strong detox pathways.
Contrary to popular belief, even most monks are allowed to, and do, eat meat. But what about those that don’t, wouldn’t they know something the rest of us don’t? Again, as just mentioned above, the lifestyle, environment, and stress of the monk needs to be considered when comparing the health benefit of veganism in their world as compared to ours. Vegan monks typically live a very low stress lifestyle, and receive their food from a very non-toxic environment, often the monastery’s own gardens. There is far less importance on a strong detox system as their toxic load is generally far below what the rest of us have. Stress is the other major factor that MUST be considered when comparing the health effects from diets of different peoples. The vegan monk will be prone to elevated copper and reduced zinc, but the negative mineral effect will be only a fraction of what others might experience. Stress is the reason. Stress directly affects mineral levels. Stress increases copper retention and it lowers zinc! The more stress you have in your life therefore, as a vegan, the more prone you will likely be to the negative effects of these mineral imbalances. The vegan monk, living in a pristine, stress-free environment, usually exposed to less pathogens than the rest of us, and practicing meditation daily (a form of stress reduction) is much more able to keep his mineral levels in check. This is an important consideration yet one that is often overlooked.
We’ll return to the nutritional focus shortly, as that is the educational purpose of this article. However since we’re on the topic of monks, it’s worthy to have a short side discussion here on the spiritual side of the diet, since many vegans turn to the diet as a form of spiritual practice, not fully understanding the origins. One of today’s most influential spiritual leaders, the Dalai Lama, eats meat. If we go back to ancient times, Buddha too ate meat. For Buddha, it was not about eating (or not eating) meat, but rather about the principal of ahimsa (non-injury). As long as the animal was not slaughtered specifically on his behalf, he would eat meat. In fact, Buddha expelled one of his followers, Devadatta, from the community in part because of Devadatta’s belief that vegetarianism should be incorporated into the Buddhist monastic code. Since Buddha himself ate meat, there is some gap in logic when Buddhism is used as the reason as to why one chooses the vegan/vegetarian diet. The argument could be made that the ‘eight-fold path’ of Buddhism dictates one must not intentionally kill a living being, but that needs to be understood in the context it was originally meant. The eight-fold path was directed towards monks and nuns who dedicated all aspects of their lives toward spiritual enlightenment. For ascetics in ancient India, some adopted vegetarianism for the purpose of self-denial in order to reach that goal…but most of us are not monks or nuns, and vast numbers of Buddhists, then and today, eat meat. And to attack those who eat meat because it goes against the concept of ahimsa is somewhat hypocritical when the farming of vegetables kills insects and other animal life, we live in homes and have furniture made from wood which inevitably involved to some degree the destruction of forests and loss of animal habitat, or we wear clothing made from silk which involved the killing of silkworms or made by our fellow humans working in inhumane work conditions. Is it not also an act of injury toward Self to not give your body all it truly needs? "The concept of non-harming extends to the individual person as well. So, for example, a person whose health deteriorates from a vegetarian diet is harming themselves, which means in this case they would not be following the principle of ahimsa. The misconception was perhaps caused in part by the first generation of yoga teachers in the US, who studied under teachers such as Swami Satchidananda and B.K.S. Iyengar, who were Indian and Brahmin, making them culturally vegetarian. This, combined with a misinterpretation of ahimsa, led to an idea within the yoga community in the western world that you could only be a yogi if you were vegetarian." The message is, we must be mindful and compassionate toward Mother Earth and its inhabitants, with the understanding that none of us are innocent of ‘not causing harm’, and also acknowledging that veganism is not something we are forced to follow as a religious or yogic diet directive.
Some spiritual movements promoted the plant-diet more than others, such as Jainism in the first millennium BC, though even they allowed for the consumption of dairy (as milking the cow does not harm the cow) . One additional consideration though when discussing what might have worked for cultures in the past is our metabolic evolution. Most people even 100 years ago were fast metabolizers (one of two ‘oxidation types’ - a term coined by Dr. George Watson, Ph.D. in the 1970s) with lower copper and calcium relative to higher sodium and potassium. With that kind of a mineral profile, their bodies would more easily allow for a higher copper (plant-based) diet. Today however, roughly 80% of the population is the reverse - slow metabolizers/oxidizers, with people having higher tissue copper and calcium relative to lower sodium and potassium. For this large and growing subgroup, the vegan diet is only worsening their mineral profile by raising copper and lowering potassium further. (The irony here is that, while the mineral content of the vegan diet exacerbates slow metabolism, the high fat content of meat restricts the vegan from wanting to eat meat since the fat further slows metabolism and it will only make them feel worse). Now, for the other roughly 20% of people who naturally have a faster metabolic profile, they are more easily able to handle the vegan diet.
Returning to nutrient imbalances, next is the issue of iron. Heme-iron (the most absorbable form) is found only in meat, fish and poultry, while non-heme iron is found in plants, grains, legumes, and vegetables. The latter is poorly absorbed (roughly 5% absorption as compared to roughly 20% absorption from meat sources), and that can lead to potential iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. To be clear, there is no deficiency of iron content in the vegan diet, but the bioavailability of it is greatly sub-par . Added to this, as copper increases without adequate zinc and without adequate ceruloplasmin (which typically declines as the adrenals become exhausted), copper builds up in a bio-unavailable form as we’ve already explained, unable to perform its functions. One of these functions is to make hemeprotein (important for oxygen transport and electron transport). The vegan inherently thus has excess bio-unavailable copper combined with heme iron deficiency. You can have all the copper in the world, but if the copper is bio-unavailable, then iron cannot attach to the heme molecule. Premenopausal women who lose iron each month through blood are at even higher risk of this. By regulating the copper level we can in turn begin to improve the absorption and utilization of iron.
While these are all considerations that should be on the radar of both the male and female vegan, women are further predisposed to nutritional imbalance due to the effects of estrogen. Anything that raises estrogen increases the retention of copper which, in the vegan as we've discussed, is already high. Women are therefore at the highest risk of these potential copper-related health issues. However men too are impacted by the effect of estrogen, especially phytoestrogens. The vegan, male or female, relies on a lot of soy-based product. Soy, in any form, contains phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens mimic estrogen in the body, further increasing copper, in turn lowering zinc, affecting digestive and adrenal health, the liver, the elimination of toxins; and simply exacerbating a vicious cycle.
There are other deficiencies too, among them creatine, carnosine, and DHA. DHA is necessary for normal brain function and heart health, and is usually found in fish and krill. It can also be converted from the ALA in some seeds and nuts, though the conversion is poor (typically less than 5%). In fact, when two of the founders of veganism (who later suffered from Parkinson’s Disease) died, their DHA was tested and it was zero. Coincidence? Perhaps. But why risk your health, at least get your levels tested. The vegan diet is also low in choline (essential for brain health, neurotransmitter synthesis and methylation). For some, the plant diet will give them enough choline, but for many, especially postmenopausal women, expectant mothers, men, and those with PEMT gene polymorphism (common), the low choline (vegan) diet will put them at greater risk of developing organ dysfunction, fatty liver disease, heart disease, or cognitive problems.
It’s so important when choosing and designing your diet that one understands these concepts. Of course there are some people who do well on the vegan diet and in some cases argue it is a diet for all to embrace, however one must be very careful in promoting one’s own experience or personal belief as an ideology for all to adopt. We are all bio-individually unique, with our own unique mineral profiles. While a vegan with a faster metabolic rate, no polymorphisms, low stress, intelligent dietary planning, and a healthy gut microbiome can do well on the vegan diet, many others will eventually suffer on the same diet. What does apply to everyone however is the interrelationship of minerals, and the inherent nutritional deficiencies of the vegan diet if one is not very careful. Furthermore, the mineral patterns of excess copper, slow thyroid, and adrenal fatigue / insufficiency in most long term vegans becomes very clear when evidenced through HTMA (Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis) data. As long as doctors (and studies) rely solely on blood results to assess mineral status or adrenal strength (adrenal fatigue being a concept not even acknowledged in allopathic medicine), most of these imbalances will remain off the radar, myths about what constitutes a “healthy diet” will persist, and the same misinformation that has existed for decades in both nutritional and medical training will be repeated and retold, further supporting those who argue (sometimes even vitriolically) otherwise. Millions of HTMA test results and countless case studies over 40 years of testing show these distinct metabolic patterns, and, though there will always be exceptions, the typical long term vegan will in the majority of cases show lowered sodium and potassium (weakened adrenals and digestion), higher ratios of calcium to potassium (sluggish thyroid), and elevated excess tissue copper (though sometimes hidden due to the weakened adrenal activity). Looking at the stored mineral levels in the body’s cells and tissues reflects a new paradigm that allows us to truly come to understand the effects our dietary and lifestyle choices have on us.
"There is a predisposition in this country to kinds of virtuous extremes, and I lived this life myself.
I was a vegan, I was a vegetarian, I was non-fat, I was low-fat, I was anorexic, in short I thought that if animal foods would kill you
and fats would kill you, the less the better and zero must be ideal.
This is obviously nonsensical thinking. It's black its white. It's rigid. It's extreme. And it's not virtuous...
Little by little I started to eat these foods (traditional - meat, poultry, raw milk, etc) again and in time came back to being a moderate omnivore,
a conscientious carnivore, a traditional foods person, and restored my health along the way.... ...
I was...gloomy and irritable, I was depressed in the winter, in short I was a sickly person with a big personality and I had no idea that my virtuous diets
were making me sick until little by little I added traditional foods back."
~Nina Planck (Food Writer)
"I adopted a mostly vegetarian diet that included processed soy foods like soy burgers and soy milk, as well as processed seed oils like canola oil.
I thought these foods were better choices for me. Little did I know, they were contributing to my downward spiral into chronic autoimmune issues
that wouldn’t surface in full force until my early thirties."
~ Michelle Brown, CTNC
As much as we want to believe the vegan way is being kind to our body and the planet, there is sufficient evidence to suggest otherwise, especially when we’re able to view health status through a person’s mineral profile. This is not to say that eating meat is free from harm, it is not, and there are certainly many unhealthy omnivores. While some studies show that vegans and vegetarians are ‘healthier’ and have lower risks of heart disease (and other conditions), is it really the abstinence from meat that causes this, or something else? Vegans/vegetarians appear healthier certainly in part because they tend to care the most about their bodies and what they consume. They are by far the most diligent (usually) in choosing the foods they eat, thereby also avoiding a lot of the crap and excesses that other people eat, and this is certainly to their benefit. However to say that good health results from not eating meat is misconstrued. We can go all the way back to the Charak Samhita, one of the most ancient, comprehensive and authoritative works of Ayurveda, and considered the original reference book of holistic Ayurvedic medicine, in which it describes the flesh of cow as a medicine for various diseases. Contrary to what many (including practitioners) have been led to believe or were taught in college, Ayurveda was never a vegetarian system, nor was the ancient Vedic culture purely vegetarian.
"If someone is a menstruating, pregnant or lactating female, and/or if you live in a cooler climate where local sustainable vegetarianism is impossible, or if you are a child, an elderly person, or someone that is predominantly vata – is your personal choice enough to tell all these people they can’t eat meat? Ayurveda does not say that. The Buddha did not say that." ~Todd Caldecott, (RH(AHG), CAP(NAMA))
Regardless of historical and religious texts, which there will always be someone willing to argue the interpretation of, one overwhelming issue is clear. That is, until doctors and those publishing medical studies begin to analyze the body’s mineral system at the cellular and tissue level as reflected through HTMA data, there will remain a disconnect between medicine/health conditions and the role mineral imbalance plays. When we’re able to view the biochemical makeup of the individual at the cellular and tissue level, examining and seeing the true mineral and nutrient balances in the body, it becomes easier to understand that the vegan diet is not based on human physiology. Rather, veganism is an ideology founded as recently as the 1940s, with very little historical basis. Even in terms of environmental sustainability, veganism falls short, creating a planet less sustainable than a 20% to 40% omnivorous diet, according to this study.
As stated at the outset, the tone of this article is to support and empower through knowledge, much of which is rarely taught or talked about. Whether you agree or disagree with this information is your choice, but seeing how much of the existing dialogue out there ignores the basic science of mineral interrelationships and nutritional biochemistry or even denies altogether the concept of nutrient deficiencies and imbalance, it’s important that this information is understood so that those choosing the vegan diet have fuller disclosure. The author, having immense respect for the ethical choice being made by vegans and vegetarians for animal welfare, and caring deeply about the health of all people, has tragically seen in both his personal life as well as professional practice (seeing many vegans admitted in ill health), the damaging health effects from an individual's choice to fully avoid meat. The goal here is to provide education and information to those that are open to it, for everyone’s best wellness. At least with the information provided above, the reader can now begin to take measures that can limit some of these nutritional imbalances, though some concessions may be needed. The reader will also be better able to navigate through much of the misguided information that pervades the Internet today insisting that vegan nutritional deficiencies are a myth. Resisting evidence to the contrary that deficiencies don’t exist not only clouds the greater understanding and blocks answers that many of those who are suffering are seeking and desperately need. Rather, let’s open the dialogue to promoting greater nutritional education, one that doesn't pit the convictions of vegans against carnists or vice versa, but one that ultimately serves all those with the common goal of living one’s healthiest life. We must absolutely advocate for far more compassionate and humane animal farming practices, as the current cruelty to many animals is horrendous. However, we must also remember that almost no one today is innocent from breaking the principal of ahimsa, and that there are healthy and humane sources of meat (www.eatwild.com). For many, it is at their own self-harm and sacrifice that dietary meat is abstained from altogether long term. It is about finding a healthy balance, and success with the vegan diet is really dependent on proper supplementation combined with one’s individual biochemical makeup. For the large numbers of vegans worldwide who are experiencing lowered energy / adrenal fatigue, depression, failure to thrive, sluggish thyroid, digestive issues, or worse, it would be worthwhile to examine your mineral levels through an HTMA test to gain a clearer understanding of your nutrient deficiencies and excesses, simply to at least know where you stand. Even proactively, doing so can be an essential first step in understanding and validating for oneself what is written here and restoring a healthier biochemical balance that will pay dividends in health later in life.
Chatsworth C, (1985) Energy: How it Affects Your Emotions, Your Level of Achievement, and Your Entire Personal Well-being: Healthview
Pfeiffer, C, (1975) Mental and Elemental Nutrients: A Physician's Guide to Nutrition and Health Care: Keats Publishing Inc
Bhaskarananda, Swami (2002). The Essentials of Hinduism. Seattle: The Vedanta Society of Western Washington. p. 59. ISBN 1884852041
 Goodman, Mark, et al. Are U.S. lower normal B-12 limits too low? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 44, No. 10, October 1996, pp. 1274-75
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